The earliest excavations of Pompeii were financed by Charles III, the Bourbon king of Naples. Their purpose was, frankly, to loot the site in order to decorate his palace. Many “lesser” artifacts were destroyed so that no one else could have them.
The good news is that the items obtained by Charles III are now housed in the Naples Archaeological Museum. I tried to include a good sampling of the items I saw there, including the so-called Farnese Cup. This piece was made in Hellenistic Egypt, and is tied to the Ptolemaic court of Cleopatra VII, although it probably only came to Rome late in the Augustan period.
(Photos by the author)